(12) In some NENA dialects the preterite off Category II verbs enjoys a beneficial vocalism (m)CoCiC- otherwise (m)CuCiC- without any precursor in the previous dialects. Noldeke (1868, 213) suggested that modern form is actually pertaining to this new Hebrew pual. Examples: Aradhin mbusille ‘he cooked’ (Krotkoff 1982, 136), Tkhuma mso:re:li ‘I began’, Jilu +poltele ‘he grabbed it out’ (Fox 1992, 54). Versions with o or u is actually absent exterior NENA and also in many of your NENA dialects: Hertevin, Sanandaj Religious, and you may Halabja: Halabja bqirraxun ‘you (pl.) asked’, Hertevin bqerre ‘he asked’ (Jastrow 1988, 206).
(13) All round expose are noted of the a good prefix throughout NENA but Hertevin plus Mandaic plus in Turoyo. Brand new prefix takes one of around three variations: (a) k- into the most of the verbs (state-of-the-art so you’re able to c- for the Urmi, longer so you can ko- before consonants in Turoyo, plus Zakho to-be g- prior to a spoken phoneme); (b) k- but merely to the a limited category of verbs (with many voicing consumption and regularly most other changes also); or (c) i- towards all verbs.
Examples: (a) Zakho k-xaze ‘he sees’, g-emir ‘he says’ (Meehan and you may Alon 1979, 182), Urmi csader ‘he sends’ (Hetzron 1969, 115), Turoyo kohoze ‘he sees’, Tisqopa ksaqIl ‘he takes’ (Rubba, personal communication); (b) Halabja k-ImrIx-wa ‘we do say’, but doqIx-wa-le ‘we create to see it’, Azerbaijan k-xil ‘he takes, often eat’, but sate ‘he drinks, commonly, could possibly get drink’ (Garbell 1965, 66, 67); (c) Aradhin i-zare:los angeles ‘he tills it’ (Krotkoff 1982, 70), Jilu we-napli baro ‘they pursue her’ (Fox 1992, 55).
This new k- prefix is apparently an emergency of the prefix qa- out-of BT, as in the fresh new common qatane ‘he teaches’. elizabeth ‘stands’. In a few east dialects the newest distribution out of k- happens to be limited by a little family of verbs (Garbell 1965, 65). In other people, it’s gone away and you may been changed of the another prefix we-, hence probably got its start as a lower version of i[Theta] ‘there is’.
Examples: Halabja geznawa ta knista ‘I visits this new synagogue’, Aradhin tla t-sapri ‘to wait’, Jilu zIlli l-yawa zuze tla da kIcca ‘I went to give money so you can an effective girl’, Tisqopa [Theta]e:li ta di-mbaslan ‘I (fem
(14) Brand new verb ‘give’ was yehav within the BT, and yav inside Syriac. This has been remade in all NENA dialects through the incorporation of one’s following the l- ‘to’. The fresh vital, that was hav into the Syriac and BT, is hal (Noldeke 1868, 256) throughout NENA which You will find guidance, yet not in Turoyo otherwise Mandaic.
(15) In every NENA, the new just one vital off qyama ‘get up’ has lost its last m: Aradhin qu (Krotkoff 1982, 145), Sanandaj Christian qu (Panoussi, 110). The new plural, however, holds the fresh new yards.
(16) Throughout NENA, the latest essential of (i)zala ‘go’ try unpredictable: Aradhin si (Krotkoff 1982, 147), Sanandaj Christian state (Panoussi 119), Jilu se, Jewish Azerbaijani au moment ou (Garbell 1965, 285).
(17) All over NENA, several different terms are utilized given that feet to possess reflexive pronouns particularly ‘myself’. He’s: ruh- in Hertevin plus Turoyo, nos- from the around three easternmost Jewish languages, and you can gyan- in the left dialects: Hertevin ruhan ‘ourselves’ (Jastrow 1988, 197), Zakho qtala gyane ‘beating himself’ (Meehan and Alon 1982, 181), Halabja nosan ‘ourselves’.
Which qa- are by itself a contraction from qa?
(18) A new preposition meaning ‘to’ or ‘for’ which will take the form ta, tla, or tla try widespread, although profily love ru not universal, during the NENA, although not used in Mandaic or Turoyo. ) found cook’ (Rubba, individual communication), Zakho cuxa los angeles psIxle darga tale ‘no one to exposed the door to help you him’ (Meehan and you can Alon 1979, 182).